Just How Does Exercise Boost Energy?
In a study published in the journal Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics in 2008, University of Georgia researchers found that inactive folks who normally complained of fatigue could increase energy by 20% while decreasing fatigue by as much as 65% by simply participating in regular, low-intensity exercise.
Further, Thayer says, a study he plans to present at an American Psychological Association meeting reveals that on days when people walked more total daily steps, they ended the day with more energy then on days when they walked less.
How exactly does this happen?
"Contrary to popular belief, exercising doesn't make you tired -- it literally creates energy in your body. Your body rises up to meet the challenge for more energy by becoming stronger," says nutritionist Samantha Heller, MS, RD, a nutrition advisor for the Journey for Control diabetes program.
Heller says this happens on the cellular level, where the first stirrings of our natural energy production begin. "It all begins with tiny organs called mitochondria. Located in our cells, they work like tiny power plants to produce energy," she says.
Just How Does Exercise Boost Energy? continued...
While some of that energy comes from your diet (one reason that eating too little can power down your metabolism), the number of mitochondria you have -- and thus your ability to produce energy -- is affected by your daily activity.
"For example, the more you exercise aerobically, the more mitochondria the body makes to produce more energy to meet your needs, which is one reason how -- and why -- regular cardiovascular exercise actually creates more available energy for your body," says Heller.
Exercise for Energy: What Really Works
So just how do you go about getting some of this energy for yourself?
First of all, Thayer says, it's important to understand that there are different types of energy. And not all have the same positive effect on the body.
He says that many Americans, particularly "achievement-oriented Type A people" have "tense energy" -- an effective state that allows you to get lots of work done, but that can quickly move into tense-tiredness, a negative state often associated with depression.
On the other hand, what he calls "calm energy" is a combination of a high physical and mental energy level, paired with low physical tension. It is this state, he says, that offers more long-lasting energy. And, he says, it can be achieved with the right kind of exercise.
"What summarizes the relationship best is moderate exercise -- like a 10- or 15-minute walk -- has the primary effect of increased energy, while very intense exercise -- like working out at the gym, 45 minutes of treadmill -- has the primary effect of at least temporarily reducing energy, because you come away tired," he says.
Behavioral therapist and personal trainer Therese Pasqualoni, PhD, agrees.
Regardless of what energy-producing exercise you choose, you can get more out of your workout time by eating some fruit just before you start, says Pasqualoni, founder of the Strike It Healthy web site.
"This allows food, which is a form of energy, to be broken down and the nutrients enter the bloodstream, while preparing the body for work," she says. "The end result: You have more energy while you're working out -- and more energy afterwards."
Heller also reminds us to drink plenty of water before, during, and after working out to help decrease workout-related fatigue.
"Dehydration is an important cause of fatigue, so to get the most energy out of every workout, be sure to stay hydrated," she says.
And finally, what if you're really just too tired to do anything at all? Experts say simply getting up out of your chair may be enough to get those mitochondria energy factories powered up -- and for you to feel some instant results.
Says Thayer: "Even if you think you're too tired to do anything, get up and walk around the room, and in a couple of minutes you're going to feel some energy that wasn't there before. And that may lead you to want to move even more."
When exercising for energy, she says, "You should always aim to exercise in your low to moderate training heart rate range. This will prevent you from depleting your body, and help you avoid feeling fatigued, which would otherwise prevent you from getting the maximum energy benefits."
Of course, what's moderate for some may be too little for others. "How much you can do before you cross the threshold into tiredness is often dependent upon how well your body is conditioned," Thayer says.
Exercise for Energy: What Really Works continued...
In addition to walking, experts say other forms of exercise that help increase "calm energy" are yoga, Pilates, Tai Chi, and, sometimes, resistance strength training, particularly when done with slow, deliberate motions.
Further, Thayer says playing music during any workout may increase "calm energy" while helping to reduce tension.
"In a study we did about 10 years ago, we found that music was a very effective way to change a person's mood," he says. "And though we don't have any data just yet, we are now studying whether workouts that combine music and movement, like Jazzercise, can induce this state of calm energy that is so healthy."
While experts agree that moderate movement is key to increasing energy, even if you overdo it, your end result may still be less fatigue.
"Though it's mostly anecdotal at this point, we are starting to see that while intense exercise may tire you out, it also reduces tension, so that after an hour or so, when your muscles begin to recover, you might see a surge of energy but without tension," says Thayer.